1. Bade Bhai Saab
Page No: 9
Q: 1. What is the age of the narrator?
Ans:-At the beginning of the story the age of the narrator was 11years and he turned to 13years by the end of the story.
Ans:-At the beginning of the story the age of the narrator was 11years and he turned to 13years by the end of the story.
Q: 2. How does he describe his elder brother?
Ans:- He describes his elder brother as a studious person who is always engrossed in books. He is much responsible towards his brother and cares him a lot. But he was too dominant that he wants to control him in all aspects. He desires to improve his knowledge by laying strong foundation. He controls himself by keeping himself away from worldly pleasures like playing games, fairs, cricket matches and other entertainments. He has great respect towards elders.
Q: 3. Why was his elder brother angry with the narrator? Illustrate with at least three expressions he uses?
Ans:- The elder brother was angry with the narrator because he always wastes his time either in playground or entertaining with friends rather than on studies.
Ans:- The elder brother was angry with the narrator because he always wastes his time either in playground or entertaining with friends rather than on studies.
The following expressions make it clear:-
1. It is no child’s play dear.
2. If you want to waste your life thus, better go home and play Gulli- danda to your heart’s content.
3. So you feel you have conquered the world.
4. Don’t fly high; you will fall on your face.
5. Are you out of your mind, roaming like vagabond with this hooligans. Etc….
Q: 4. How was the tension between the two brothers resolved?
Ans:- The tension between the two brothers resolved when the younger ones pleaded for forgiveness and he told that it was his own fault and every word what he said was true. So, he never hates him. Immediately, the elder brother hugged him. Both of them broke into tears. The hatred situation turned to warmth and thus the tension between them was resolved.
Page No: 11
Throwing pebbles in the air, flying paper butterflies, this is no child’s play, the bouncing of football, the fervor kabbadi and the pace of volleyball, tiptoe, the sword of Damocles, Amma and Dada and home remedy are the words and phrases that convey the rural/semi-urban setting of the story. An urban reader gets confused when he comes across such words at the first glance but as he continues further he gets absorbed to the nativity of the story.
Page No: 12
Q: 1. Younger brother is at his success. The elder ones wish that he always wants to be admired. He says that even God can’t challenge the truth that he is elder one. He threatens the younger one never to develop false pride whether he got into his grade or even more ahead.
Q: 2. Yes, the elder brother is a bit jealous of the success of his younger ones. In spite of praising and feel honored as his brother topped the grade his elder brother simonized him whenever he was found playing. Q:3. Yes, the emotional bonding between the two brothers is universal. Wherever two brothers in a family is seen, the elder ones always dominates the younger ones and tries to control him. On the other side the elder care for the younger.
Q: 4. In spite of enjoying his extracurricular activities, two times in the annual results the narrator topped his grade but his elder brother flunked. But instead of confronting him, he kept silent. He never uttered any word against him even when his brother warned him many times. At the end of the story narrator was surprised to see his new avatar even then narrator humbled himself and he pleaded for forgiveness. This shows his respect towards his elder brother.
Page No: 13
Vocabulary by Theme
I. i. Speech lecture serious
ii. Scold formal chide
iii. Abate contract cut
iv. Rigid harsh serious.
II. i. angry annoy irritate
ii. by heart study building
iii. Outgoing outflow offspring
iv. harmoniously match action
Page No: 14
Q: 1. Generally, the elder brothers of the family are more responsible than younger ones. They are often called as next to father. ‘Studious’ nature of the elder brother is one of the traits observed in the story. The elder brothers feel that the younger must obey their command and follow their advice when even not asked for they lay restrictions upon themselves and others too. They make an attempt to understand the pain and struggle of their family to educate them. They seek for priority and respect. They also behave in such a manner that they know the world better than others.
Q: 2. At the beginning of the story the younger brother has much respect towards elder one. He never dared to question him. As the story progress, he found new confidence in him and wanted to question him by seeing his depressed face, but he didn’t do that. He wanted to argue with him but finding him crying he too cried. He tried not to offend him any time when the elder one stars to lecture, he bore it with patience when he was in rage the younger one shuddered. At the very sight when the elder brother was too emotional and nervous he admitted his guilt and showed compassion for him. Ultimately, he followed his elder brother, Respect for elder brother diminish but rage made way for compassion, feeling of fear turned to affection.
Page No: 16
Page No: 16
Q: 3. Clearing an exam is one thing, attaining knowledge is another. Algebra and geometry will drive you crazy and God saves you from the British history. The academic knowledge is not enough to lead the life happily. But even can match their wisdom in worldly matters. Look at our family members and parents how are they managing. So, we should always be aware of our surroundings.
Q: 4 In no way did the elder admonishing contributed to the narrator’s good performances. The elder brother has admonished the younger ones several times but the younger had never cared for his words. He paid a deaf ear to his words. The narrator is intelligent and so stands first in the class. His performance is not at all a result of elder brother’s admonishment.
Page No: 18
Even though the story is in the first person narrative, the author succeeded in highlighting the characters equally well. The author has depicted very carefully the emotional scenes and the sensitive issues. The narrative style leaves a positive impression for the reader on the characters. The reader sympathizes with the characters and understands their emotions. It is the writing style that made all these. The author dealt the story in a sensitive manner. He succeeded in grabbing the entire attention of the readers by describing routine activities and general ideas in a lively manner.
Page No: 19
Q: 1. The elder brother is dull and slow at learning. He lags subject knowledge and so he is unable to perform well in the examination although he is seen always surrounded with books and doesn’t undergo any recreation and relaxation that made his mind to be blunt. Another reason is that he was not interested in studies and has developed negative impression for history, geometry and English which is an obstacle in procuring knowledge.
Page No: 20
Q: 2. The elder is a responsible person. He has great respect for his family and feels the responsibility for his younger brother. He believes in wisdom rather than education. He has a strong feeling though one is educated in a high position; it is the worldly knowledge that leads one’s life. In his opinion, pride makes one to fall down. He strongly believes that one should have self control to achieve one’s goal to succeed in one’s life.
Page No: 21
Being friendly with all the people. Empathy towards poor and needy. Self confident. ` Helping nature Positive thinking.
Telling lies and hiding makes me to get angry Short temper and very sensitive Doing mischievous things and getting scolded from parents.
By interacting with my grandparents I came to know that there is a lot of happiness and support among the family members. In those days and also the younger ones always obeys the elders. There will be a lot of understanding between the family members. There will be a strong bondage of love and affection between the family members because in those days they have got joint families. Even for a small function or occasion everyone attends it and they used to share their feelings and ideas but now a days. It is not like that no one cares for the other one. All the families are nuclear family. They are ready to share their parents along with their property. So this has to be changed to get a healthy society.
In those days most of the people are not educated as now. In that days education is given very less importance they acquire knowledge by interacting with people. The people who got knowledge have participated in freedom movement. If we got education and knowledge no one can cheat us and we need not depend on others. But now there is a drastic change in our educational systems. So this change is very good. Women also be given great importance, they should also be educated. Then, there will be no discrimination between men and women and this leads to a healthy society.
2. The Hawk and the Tree
Literary concept: Theme (P.No.35)
- The cobbler says,……..Do you agree with the narrator?
- Yes, the cobbler was cruel. He was very happy to see his sparrow hawk dead. But of course, the hawk too is cruel, as it cheerfully ate the live sparrows.
- What is your reaction …………..to another being’s death?
- The crowd has indirectly made this comment through their behaviour. It is a heinous act to take pleasure at the sufferings of others. The innate sadism of a man made them insensitive to another being’s death. Moreover, they took joy because they haven’t been in that crucial situation.
- Revisit the lines………………..apathy shown by the characters?
- The author used the line when he saw the hawk hanging from the dead tree. He felt, as if the hawk was talking to him through its lifeless eyes. This line signifies the need of apathy under all circumstances. The characters have no concern for others and hence the same thing happened to them in the narrator’s imagination. “As we sow, so we reap.” We get whatever we give to others.
- The refrain……………more responsive to those around them?
- The author’s aim is to persuade the readers to do exactly the opposite. He wants the readers to attain moral values and be sympathetic to others. He sarcastically exploited the human nature which takes pleasure at others’ sufferings.
By repeating the words ‘cannot break it’, he doesn’t convey that it is useless or
unable to do. He wants the reader to get rid of the negative emotions like ego,
jealousy, apathy, insecurity and so on. According to him, we should respond to
others’ sufferings and pains; and we shouldn’t be the reason for other’s pain.
Culture point : Class and social Attitudes (P.No.37)
- The author does not……………..behaviour as well?
- Yes, he surely does. He hints the readers to introspect themselves, come out with their short comings and try to overcome them. He makes it clear that every human has his own faults and one need to check oneself at all the times and should make an attempt to change his unfavourable behaviour.
- comment on………………..author’s attitude towards them.
- All the characters in the story reflect the moral stillness of the society. The jobless men hang around all day long at cobbler’s shop. They have no work to do. They can’t think on their own. They lack individuality. That’s why they always tend to imitate the cobbler. The writer feels that they are so stupid and idiotic who don’t get bored of imitating the cobbler.
- What exactly does the author mean by ‘string’?
A. The author symbolizes a wide variety of feelings and emotions as ‘strings’. It
symbolizes ego, social irresponsibility, insecurity, jealousy, apathy, sadism and above
all, the result of our deeds.
- The deeper meaning………………life in general?
A. The author brings out the inhuman attitude of the people towards the society. He
opines that the society lacks moral and social responsibilities. People are insensitive
for others’ sufferings. No one tries to be a better human being but expects others to be
Life goes accordingly with our chosen path. Tragic end of life is a mere result of
our actions. One has to get rid of the strings that tie one’s feet and move forward with
a sense of freedom.
Literary concept : Point of view (P.No.40)
By now you are aware that……..work on their short comings.
The author describes that everyone has his own short comings. We should identify and try to rectify them rather than pointing at others’ mistakes. We should trace out the strings that bind us and try to release ourselves from them.
Literary concept : Symbolism (P.No.40)
- What does the string of sparrows………victim of its ego too?
A. The hawk didn’t really return. Everything was his imagination. The hawk too was a
victim of its ego. It cheerfully ate the live sparrows. The narrator indirectly says
that the dreadful death of the hawk is a result of the sufferings of the sparrows.
Feeding on live sparrows resulted in its death.
- What do you think the string……..symbolic of?
A. The hawk symbolizes a merciless individual bound by ego. The sparrows not only symbolize the actions of an individual, but also weakness, lack of individuality, cowardly nature and the act of easily falling prey to others.
The string represents the consequences of our actions. The dead tree is a
symbolic representation of this emotionless and merciless society. It reflects
barrenness, unproductiveness, unfruitfulness and uselessness. It represents the
society that remains still, not bothering about the happenings.
- What do you think is the author’s comment……………….of this story?
A. The author wants to resemble the society through his story. He compares his
characters to the merciless society which stays still without any sensitivity to the
happenings. He comments that the society is the culprit of all the evils and sins.
Irresponsibility and insensitivity remains the root cause for the moral bankruptcy
of the society. Life, too, according to author is a reflection of our deeds. No one
can escape from the past deeds which result in present rewards.
Reading Journal (P.No.43)
- Would this story hold true……….why?
A. The story holds true for a democratic country like
People, here, are pre occupied with their own routines neglecting the other
things. People have become so egotistic that they dare to do anything for their
own well-being, never considering the morals. They take pleasure at the
suffering of others. India
- Besides ego……………..insensitive?
A. Being self-centered, always interested in self upcoming, getting green-eyed at the success of others, having a pre-occupied nature, having completely absorbed in themselves neglecting others, lack of social responsibilities, lack of moral attitude are the other traits besides ego, that cause people to become indifferent and insensitive.
3. TO BE OR NOT TO BE
Understanding the text: Main ideas
1. What has the protagonist’s husband been hiding from her?
A. He has been hiding the nature of his duties and the background of the award he has received.
2. Who opposes her marriage and why?
A. The protagonist’s brother opposes the marriage. He doubted that a military officer, and a woman who is against the military rule, wouldn’t make a perfect match.
3. Why do the protagonist’s friends stop interacting with her?
A. They were stifled and didn’t trust her. Moreover, they regarded her as a Trojan horse.
4. What is the impact of her friend’s sudden death on the protagonist?
A. She was so upset and wept for many days.
5. Why do you think she compares her husband and his friends to wolves?
A. Because they are so cruel and have wild thoughts. They seemed fierceful.
6. What is the impact of the revelation on the protagonist?
A. It is hard for her to believe. She couldn’t digest the true colour of her husband.
Looking at language: Writing style
Read the following phrases and write the associations/images they create for you.
- Darkness had spread itself over the trees[para 1]
It indirectly says that something bad has occurred and it is unavoidable.
- All the shreds of lights were over and our shrieks filled all the dark corners [para 3]
Succeeding in one’s attempts gives joy and fulfillment. It drives away negativity.
- Darkness would swallow up all the fragments of light [para 9]
The misery and misfortune in life have taken away all the cheerful moments.
- I stand in the semi-dark arch of the drawing room door[para 26]
The thought process is going on and she is ready to face the situation, whatever the consequences may be.
Looking at Language: Vocabulary by Theme
Rooted to spot = unable to move
Legs gave way = unable to stand
Retreated within myself = consoled myself, moved away from something
Trance = have no conscious control
Dead foetus = not alive, ended relation
Literary concept: Theme
1. Would you consider ‘To be or Not to Be’ a political story?
A. It is a story of personal life with a political backdrop. It depicts the role of politics in a woman’s family.
2. Does the author………. Carried out around them?
A. The author blames everyone in the society that is involved in violating the human rights, that is ignorant of their rights and that is oppressing those rights. She criticizes the insensitive human tendency.
3. What do you think is the intent of the author in writing such a story?
A. The author intends to reveal the true colours of the military government and the impact it has on a normal family. She wanted to put forth the struggle faced by a wife in such a situation.
4. What is the tone the narrator has adopted?
A. The narrator has adopted a tone of depressive yet powerful, gloomy but realistic, empathetic and suggestive.
1. How does the writer depict the military establishment in the story?
A. The military establishment was considered frightening, terrific, wild, Hippocratic, cruel and merciless. Major part of her life is associated with its regime and oppression. Military power was so strong that no one could stand or fight against it. It was like a strong oak tree rooted deep into earth and rose to the clouds. Its sprawling branches covered the entire livelihood in the country.
2. Does the absence of names make the story more universal and impactful?
A. Yes, of course. Absence of names makes the story more universal and impactful. Everyone could identify themselves or their friends or family in the characters and the scenes. The impact would be more because the plot is not diluted by personalizing the characters.
3. In what terms does she describe the victims of the torture?
A. The victims of the torture are the narrator herself, her friend and her friend’s wife. The terms used to describe these victims are — unknown soldier, lamenting wife, a genious, brilliant mind and a noble soul. The victims of the torture were so gentle, noble, good at heart, generous, ambitious and courageous but were suppressed, oppressed and deceived by the power.
It’s not a tale of personal betrayal alone. It includes political and ethical betrayal, too.
She was ashamed of her husband’s nature and behavior. She expresses her dissatisfaction and resentment upon his personal and ethical betrayal. She also includes the government and authorities for their betrayal of signing on the articles and brushing them aside.
Literary concept: Imagery
She compared the cruelty and wild nature of human beings with that of the wild animals. She represented the inhuman behavior by comparing them and their actions to the wild life. She says that they were like snarling wolves and growling wolves, crowding with their bloody jaws.
In her point of view, the men that torture other men and the men who find pleasure in it are no less than the wild animals.
1. Read the lines……………end them
A. The essence of the story is clearly conveyed in the title itself. The narrator is in a dilemma. She struggles over the decision she has to make: whether to continue with the sufferings or to oppose and stand against them.
2. Do you think……………………. To its citizens?
A. The author is critical of any form of governance that denies rights to its citizens. She fights for the rights of a common man.
3. Have you ever…………… author’s story?
A. It is a non-governmental organization that works to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights and to demand justice for these whose rights have been violated.
The reports show that the communities, most affected by human rights abuses are the real driving force behind the human rights struggle. Their courage, determination and perseverance have inspired millions to fight for justice.
The narrator in the story has suffered to the extent and hence would lead the movement with strong and firm determination, and courage until she reaches her determined goal.
I came to know about a girl, Vijaya, who faced a severe and the worst disappointment in her life, at a tender age. Vijaya was so innocent, natural and cheerful. Her days passed in a happy manner until she turned 10. Her fate was over turned with the death of her dear father. There was no means to run the home. She and her mother struggled for a while to get on with the hard moments. They sought shelter with their relatives but had to face severe humility and hostile behavior.
They decided to no longer face them and have started their own earnings. Life went on for two years. Vijaya’s mother now got married to a man who has shown his sympathy for her. Vijaya was happy to have a father again and she started to share everything with him. But the real trouble came in the form of her father.
He started to behave in an unusual way. She was unable to understand the real sense of her step father. She thought that he was pampering and taking great care of her. But on one bleak day, he tried to assault her physically that she was dumb struck at the happening. She was so horrified at the reality. When she tried to reveal it to her mother, she simply paid a deaf ear to her. Life became miserable to her.
The man’s heinous acts have no end. They went on and on and finally, Vijaya has to carry the baby of her father. She ran away from the house and sought protection with a women welfare organization. She got rid of the burden she was haplessly carrying. She didn’t stop there. She wanted to reveal the true nature of her step-father to the society. She filed a case against him and let others know about all the misery she faced. She burst into tears while explaining it on a TV show. Many came to her aid and she is now studying. She expressed her wish to become an advocate so that she could see that justice be done to all.She made a closing sentence on her interview, “ All that glitters is not gold. Never trust anyone to the heart’s extent. Be cautious and take wise decisions.”
4. The Festival of the Sacred Tooth Relic in Sri Lanka
Page No: 57
Q. 1. What are Stupas? What kinds of Stupas are erected for worshipping?
Ans:- Stupas are places of Buddhist worship. They were raised either by pilgrims or great personages. They contain Buddha’s corporeal relics like his teeth, hair or bones. The kinds of Stupas are: Sharirik, Vaibhashik, Uddeshik and Votive.
Q. 2. Which Indian king introduced Buddhism to Sri Lanka according to author? Who carried his message across?
Ans:- King Ashoka, a staunch follower of Buddhism, introduced the cult in Sri Lanka. His son Mahindra, a Buddhist monk and his daughter Sanghamitra carried Buddha’s message to that country.
Q. 3. Name the term used fo9r learned Buddhist monks.
Ans:- ‘Theras’ is the term used for learned Buddhist monks.
Q. 4. What relic did the first Chetiya house?
Ans:- The first Buddhist Chetiya ‘ Thuparama Dagaba’ built in Sri Lanka housed Buddha’s collar bone.
Q. 5. Name the tree whose leaf was sent as a gesture of goodwill to Sri Lanka.
Ans:- The branch of the Bodhi Tree beneath which Buddha did his penance was sent to Sri Lanka by Ashoka as a gesture of his goodwill.
Q. 6. Where was the Tooth Relic hidden by Hemamala?
Ans:- Hemamala, daughter of king Guhashiva was said to have donned the garb of an ascetic and kept the tooth relic hidden in her coiffure.
Q. 7. Under which king’s reign was the ‘left-eye tooth’ brought to Sri Lanka? Also mention the year.
Ans:- The left-eye tooth of Buddha was brought to Sri Lanka during the reign of king Siri Megha Vanna in 371 A.D.
Q. 8. Who is credited with recording the festival of the Tooth Relic in his writings?
Ans:- It was the famous Chinese traveler Fa Hien who recorded the festival of the tooth relic in his writings.
Q. 9. Describe in your own words what happens after the Tooth Relic is displayed.
Ans:- After the tooth relic was displayed offerings were made to it in Ab hayagiri Vihara. Rituals such as burning incense and lightening lamps were observed by the pilgrims and monks for 90 days after which it was taken back to its original place.
Relic, Thevas, Chetiya, Bodhi, Patra, Palladium, ascetic, Vihara, Padmaraga, Monk, Laic, caparisoned, Jataka, Missionary.
Page No: 59
Literary Concept: Theme: 1
Buddhism is a cult native to India. But it was not limited to India. Its message and the cult relics were carried to as far as Sri Lanka by king Asoka’s son Mahindra and daughter Sanghamitra. This happened as far back as 350 century B.C. Mahindra and his band of monks ‘Theras’ greatly influenced King Devanampriya Tissa and his courtiers and converted them to Buddhism. Buddha’s relics like his collar bone, his Patra and his eye-tooth were preserved there in Stupas and buildings raised on them. There stupas which later turned into special places of pilgrimage strengthened the cultured link between India and Sri Lanka. A large number of Indian Buddhist monks visit Sri Lanka even today. The Bhodi tree transplanted in Sri Lanka during the Asoka’s time had been a great pilgrim attraction till today.
The left eye tooth brought to Sri Lanka in 371 A.D .is highly venerated by Buddhist this relic is preserved in a Vihara just by the king’s palace to give of honor. The Vihara is made brilliant with precious germs. A great Padmaraga was fixed on pole above the Vihara to make the relic a big draw. It is displayed at an annual festival with it is moved out to Abhaya Vihara for public gaze. If its arrival is celebrated for 90 days with colorful rituals.
Buddhist Monks are deeply religions. They observe all rituals meticulously. They freely mingle with the common people during festivals and processions they love festivals connected with Buddhist rallies. They consider the tooth relic to be auspicious and savior of their land.
According to Fa Hien, ten days before the festival, the king grandly caparisoned a large elephant on which he mounted a man dressed in royal robes to go round the town, beating a large drum and describing the life and the virtues of Buddha followed by an announcement to public. Buddha’s tooth would be brought out and taken to Abhayagire-Vihara for worship. Monks or laics grandly adorn the lanes by-ways and provide abundant store of flowers and incense to be used and offerings to the Relic. They also burned incense, lighted lamps and performed all the prescribed services, day and night without ceasing for ninety days.
Generally a friendly relation has existed between India and Sri Lanka. However, the Sri Lankan civil war and inefficiency of the Indian government in intervening during the civil war marred this amicable relation. Both the nations have maintained diplomatic ties since Sri Lanka’s independence in 1948. A healthy bilateral relation was established by the then Prime Minister of India- Indira Gandhi and Prime Minister of Sri Lanka- Sirimavo Bandaranaike. An agreement signed on 29th July, 1987 between the then Prime minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi and the then President of Sri Lanka, J.R. Jayewardene to address three controversial issues: people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka, strategic interests, rights of Tamil minority in Sri Lanka. The Rajiv-Jayewardene Accord, as the agreement is popularly known, led to some unfortunate events. With the signing of the agreement India got engaged in a war with a separatist organization of Sri Lanka called, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. A special peace keeping force called the IPKF was employed to curb the LTTE. Around 1200 Indian soldiers gave their life fighting. Further, India felt insulted when Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa, demanded for the withdrawal of the IPKF even before the completion of the mission. India’s sentiments received the hardest blow when Rajiv Gandhi was killed by the LTTE. The killing was masterminded by LTTE chief, V. Prabakaran. The incident led to withdrawal of support that Tamil Militants enjoyed in Tamil Nadu. India acted less actively in issues related to Sri Lanka’s Tamil Militants. However, the LTTE was finally crushed by the Sri Lanka with India’s support in 2009.
A free trade agreement was signed between both the nations in 2000. Since then the two neighbours have witnessed positive growth rate in trade. Further, both the nations being members of organizations like South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme, SAARC, South Asian Economic Union and BIMSTEC are making effort to strengthen commercial and cultural ties.
India has willingly cooperated with Sri Lanka for the latter’s development in areas of education, health, etc.
Page No: 62
Q.1Sinhalese reception to Buddhism had always been cordial. The reason is that Sinhalese and Buddhism have a common origin. The Sinhalese came to Sri Lanka from North India to settle there. Similarly Buddhism also came from North India. Before the advent of Buddhism, the aborigines of Sri Lanka had no religion worth the name – what all they had was a form of spirit worship. Buddhism being an enlightened religion found a favorable response not only from settlers but also from the aboriginals.
The Sinhalese, though Hindus originally, soon imbibed Buddhist ideals and followed them sincerely. The Sri Lankan kings raised rich Viharas and Stupas on Buddhist relics and made over rich land endowments to support them. Sri Lankan Buddhism had an independent growth. It adopted Theravada as no one else did. Huge congregations and conferences were held by kings and monks to resolve religions differences in an amicable way. It was during the reign of Raja Simha – I a Saivite king. There were conflicts between Buddhism and Sai Vism, but the later kings soon resolved the differences.
The Sri Lankan kings took several steps to consolidate Buddhism. They raised magnificent Stupas on Buddha’s relics and organized huge functions involving people to inculcate the Buddhist principles.
Q.2 Fa Hien uses a direct quotation to give a vivid account of the tooth festival. The quotation asks monks and the laymen to keep the roads smooth and clean and decorate the lanes with flowers. This mode of narration is quite appropriate as Fa Hien himself was a direct witness to the announcement. A direct account is always more authentic than an indirect one to increasing the significance of any event.
The announcement: Listen on the 10th day from now. Buddha’s tooth will be taken to Abhayagiri in a procession. So keep the streets smooth and clean. Decorate them with flowers and incense. Monks or common men- whoever takes part in the work will earn great virtue”.
Q.3The tooth relic always enjoyed a pride of place in Sri Lanka. A Vihara was built just beside the king’s palace in order to preserve it. To bring it closer to people it was taken out on a caparisoned elephant with much fan fare. Lot of publicity was given to the procession. People were told that they won’t earn merit if they kept the roads clean and beautiful. Five hundred different bodily forms of Buddha were set up along the road to Abhayagiri. Offerings were made to the tooth relic during the annual procession. The procession lasted for 90 days. On special days such as the Poya days, the king washed the tooth three times a day with perfumed water. Kings and people have come to believe that the tooth relic brought prosperity and safety to the country. The rituals and grand procession built around the tooth relic were all devised by different kings at different times to sustain people’s veneration for the relic.
Page No: 63
Literary concept: Travelogue
Fa Hien gives us a photographic account of the various aspects of Sri Lanka society. First he begins with the description of Stupas which hold a mission to Sri Lanka’s architecture. This Sanskrit names ‘Vaibhashik and Uddeshik remind us of their linguistic links with India. The setting up of images of Buddha in his previous birth along the route to Abhayagiri indicate Sri Lanka’s belief in rebirth and avatars. People’s participation in raising stupas and procession shows that religious was their life blood. Having a Bhodi Plant in their country is an indication of their desire to maintain their ethnic links with India. Then ceremonial reverence compiled with love of pomp and glitter show their popular interest their belief that tooth relic was savior of their country indicates their concern for the benefit of their native land. The mingling of kings with the common people shows the republican nature of Sri Lankan polity.
Page No: 65
The acclaimed sources of history are, ancient coins, relics, edicts on metal sheets and rock, travelogues, paintings, poetic works, still-standing monuments like Taj Mahal and Pyramids. The sources can be categorized into under grown and over grown ones. Relics, tombs and ancient habitats like Mohinjodaro and Harappa come under the first category, while rock edicts monuments and paintings and poetic works come under the latter category.
Page No: 65
Q: 1Bodh Gaya is in Bihar. It is on the banks of the river Phalguri. It is there that prince Siddharth did meditation under a peepal tree and attained enlightenment. Emperor Asoka visited Bodh Gaya and raised the Mahabodhi temple there. With the decline of Buddhism in India the temple was abandoned. It was Alexander Cunningham who took up renovation work in the late 19th century.
Now, the Mahabodhi temple is a famous place of Buddhist pilgrimage. The temple contains the Bodhi tree and the diamond throne called Vajrasana. A huge festival is held there every year in the month of Vai Shakh. Lakhs of people gather there. In 2002, U.N.O declared it a world heritage site.
There are other Buddhist temples too, raised by Buddhist countries such as Japan, China, Mayanmar, Nepal, Tibet, Thailand, Sikkim, Sri Lanka and Bhutan. These temples are built in their native building styles. The Buddha Statue in the Chinese temple is 200 years old. It had been brought from China. The Thai temple has a 25 metre bronze statue of Buddha-Chinese travelers Fa Hien and Zuan Zang are said to have visited Bodha Gaya.
Page No: 66
Q:2JagannathTemple at Puri
Puri, on the east coast of India, in the state of Orissa is a hoary pilgrimage center, enshrining Jagannath, in a colossal temple. Puri is well connected by rail and road with Calcutta and with Bhubaneshwar. Bhubaneshwar, Konarak and Puri constitute the Golden triangle of Orissa, visited in large numbers by pilgrims and tourists.
Puri is the forerunner of the Jagannath cult in Orissa, which saw the flowering of several temples dedicated to Jagannath all over the state.
Puri is an ancient shrine, enshrining Krishna - Jagannath in the form of a wooden image. Also enshrined are wooden images of Balabhadra (Balarama) and Subhadra brother and sister of Krishna respectively. Interestingly, the Rig Veda refers to Purushottama in the form of a wooden image, prepared from a log of wood floating on the ocean. Puri is also referred to in the Bhrama purana.
Orissa has Konark as the Surya Kshetra, Puri as the Vishnu kshetra, Bhubaneshwar as the Hara Kshetra and Jaipur as the Parvati Kshetra.
Legend has it that the original image of Jagannath was found at the foot of a fig tree, in the form of an Indranila or the Blue Jewel. Its blinding brightness, prompted Dharma to request it to be hidden in the earth. King Indradyumna, of Malwa intending to discover this image, performed severe penances, and was instructed by Vishnu to go to the Puri seashore, and look for a floating log, and fashion an image from its trunk.
The King did discover the log of wood. Vishnu and Vishwakarma appeared in the form of artistes and prepared images of Krishna, Balarama and Subhadra from the tree. Interestingly, the wooden images being worshipped are renewed during special occasions. New images have been installed in 1863, 1893, 1931, 1950, 1969 and 1977.
Puri was a center of Buddhist worship, before it became a center of Vaishnavism again. The Rath Yatra at Puri has its parallel with the chariot procession of the Buddha's tooth at Dantapuri.
Puri is located on the gentle slope of the Nila hill, adjacent to the sea. A sacred banyan tree is revered as a manifestation of Vishnu, the ocean - Balarama and a pool- the king Indradyumna. Pilgrims are required to offere worship first at a Shiva temple, and then at the banyan tree and then at the shrine to Balarama before proceding to worship Jagannath. Subhadra is to be worshipped next.
The Temple: The vast temple complex occupies an area of over 400000 square feet, and is bounded by a 20 feet high fortified wall. This complex contains about 120 temples and shrines. The shikhara of the Jagannath temple towers to a height of 192 feet.
Structurally the temple has four chambers. The outermost is the Bhogmandir, the next is the Nata-mandir pillared hall for music and dance, the next is the Jagamohana - or the mandapa where devotees gather for worship and the last is the sanctum or the Deul enshrining the deities.
History: The temple was originally built by the Kalinga ruler Anantavarman Chodaganga (1078 - 1148 CE). Much of the present structure was built by King Ananga Bhima Deva in the year 1174 CE. It took 14 years to complete and was consecrated in 1198 CE. It is believed that the image of Jagannath was buried thrice in the Chilka lake for protection from invaders.
Puri represents one of the four peethas established by Sankaracharya, the other four being Sringeri in south India, Dwarka in Saurashtra, and Badrinath in the Himalayas. Ramananda of the 14th century - a follower of the Sri Vaishnava religious leader Ramanuja, is also associated with this temple. Chaitanya of the 15th - 16th centuries popularized the worship of Jagannath.
Festivals: Elaborate worship services are carried out throughout the day here. There are as many as 24 festivals each year, the most important one of them being the Rath Yatra or the Chariot festival in the month June - July. The spectacular chariot festival involves the procession of three colossal chariots bearing the images of Jagannath, Balarama and Subhadra through the streets of Puri.
Jagannath's chariot is a 35 feet square, rising to a height of 45 feet, with 16 wheels, 7 feet in diameter. More than 4000 people drag the chariot. Hundreds of thousands gather from all over the country to witness this festival. The chariot is dragged to the deity's summer abode where the deities are worshipped for a week, and then a re-enactment of the chariot festival, where they are brought back in procession happens. New chariots are made each year.
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Q:3 1. Be a light unto yourself (Appo Deep, Aap Bhava).
2. Neither strain the strings too much nor relax them entirely. In either case the instrument does not ring.
3. Sangham Saranam Gachami.
4. Desire is the root cause of sorrow.
Page No: 67
Q:4 Travelogues is an eyewitness an account in writing of famous places. The world has seen famous travelers like Marco Polo, Abdul Razak, Fa Hien and Rahul Sanskrutyayan going about the world and giving vivid accounts.
But for Abdul Razak who visited the Vijayanagara empire who wouldn’t have known much about the empire. He had given a picturesque account of trade in vijayanagaran.The city streets and the heaps of diamonds put on sale.
Fa Hien and Zuan Zang the Chinese travelers who visited India during the Mouryan and Guptha periods gave full details of people’s life in the respective empires.
The accounts give us a peep into the lives of people –their modes of living, their mutual- relationships, their religion, their festivities, their beliefs and ideals, their manners and their weaknesses. As these accounts contain cultural details of foreigners they naturally attract a wider attention. People come to know through these accounts, different perceptions of life. They realize whether their own cultural and religious practices are better or worse than the alien ones. Thus people come to broad outlook on religious ethics and politics. In course of time the travelogues help to promote a spirit of positive understanding and tolerance for things different from their own.
Page No: 68
History of Velankanni
Sometime during the sixteenth century, Our Lady with her infant son appeared to a Hindu boy carrying milk to a customer’s home. While he rested under a Banyan tree near a tank (pond), Our Lady appeared to him and asked for milk for her Son and the boy gave her some. On reaching the customer’s home, the boy apologized for his lateness and the reduced amount of milk by relating the incident that occurred on his way.
On inspection, the man found the milk pot to be full and realized that something miraculous had happened. That man, also a Hindu, wanting to see the place where the apparition occurred, accompanied the boy. When they reached the tank, Our Lady appeared once again.
On learning that it was Our Lady who appeared to the boy, the residents of the local Catholic community became ecstatic. The tank where the apparition took place is called "Matha Kulam" or Our Lady’s tank.
Some years later Our Lady appeared again. This time to a crippled boy who was selling buttermilk near a public square on the outskirts of the same village of Vailankanni. She asked him for buttermilk for her infant Son and the boy compiled. Our Lady asked the boy to inform a certain wealthy Catholic man in the nearby town of Nagapattinam of her appearance. Not realizing that his crippled leg was miraculously cured by Our Lady, the boy rose up and began his journey. The man also had a vision the previous night in which Our Lady asked him to build a chapel for her. Together, the man and the boy returned to the site of the miracle.
This time Our Lady appeared to both. The man erected a thatched chapel for Our Lady at the site of Her second appearance. This chapel became a holy place of veneration to Our Blesses mother and She was called henceforth, Mother of Good Health.
A few years later, Our Merciful Mother rescued a few Portuguese merchant sailors from a violent storm, which wrecked their ship. When the merchants reached the shore of Vailankanni they were taken by local fisherman to the thatched chapel. To give thanks and pay tribute to Our Lady, they built a small permanent chapel on their return trip. On subsequent visits they improved on it. The merchants dedicated the chapel to Our Lady on September 8th to celebrate the feast of her nativity and to mark the date of their safe landing to Vailankanni.
Historical Data of Vailankanni Shrine
The history of Our Lady of Good Health, Vailankanni, dawned in the 16th century