Thursday, 14 February 2013

II.B.Tech Life Language Culture - Explorations-II

 Dial 000
                                             Barry Rosenberg


Understanding the Text : Main Ideas (page 93)

1.
 Why did Doug Wood telephone the police?
Doug Wood telephoned the police to inform that he is going to commit suicide.

2.
Why did Doug develop suicidal tendencies?
His wife left him and he lost his job. He was unable to get back and hence developed suicidal tendencies.

3.
 Why did Doug savage and glare at his mobile?
It was the only thing he could do. He couldn’t see the person on the other side and hence he showed his anger by cursing and looking seriously at the mobile.

4.
Did the suicide section really need the name and address of Doug? Substantiate your answer.
When a person commits suicide, the suicide section traces the name and address of that person. It doesn’t actually ask for it when someone phones. This is done to divert his attention.

5.
Why did Doug hastily step back when he stamped his foot and a rock sailed down?
As per the human psychology, we tend to avoid mishaps. Doug has subconsciously taken the hint given by his mind, though he’s ready to commit suicide.

6.
 What do you understand by the expression ‘black mood turning red’?
Being in a state of depression is black mood. His depressed mood is now turned to a furious anger which is denoted as red. ‘Black mood turning red’ is switching to anger from a depressed mood.

7.
What made Doug’s black mood turn red?
Doug has so patiently given the address but the person on the phone was cracking jokes irrespective of the situation and he said that he was unable to find the address on net. It made Doug furious.

8.
 Why was Doug so critical of India and the Indians?
He has low opinion on Indian cricketers. He is filled with regional feeling and hence thinks critical of India and its people.

9.
 What do you understand by ‘straight shooting’ and ‘straight bribing’?
Straight shooting means to play skillfully and honestly. Straight bribing is to bribe someone without hesitation to achieve what one wishes to.


10.
 How did Sergeant Govinda succeed in persuading Doug against committing suicide?
Govinda started to irk Doug right from the beginning. When he understood that Doug has low opinion on India and Indian cricketers, he hooked him at the point.

11.
Which psychotherapy did Govinda use on Doug?
He made use of confrontational psychotherapy. Under this therapy, the patient is indulged in a confrontational talk and is finally pulled out of his depressed and frustrated mood.

12.
 Who can be credited for the success of confrontational therapy- the psychologist who suggested the use of therapy or the Sergeant who used it in a practical way? Give a logical answer.
Both the psychologist and the Sergeant could be credited. Psychologist, for encouraging to use the therapy and the Sergeant, for having successfully implementing it.

Looking at Language : Writing Style (page 96)

Dial 000……………the story?

The story wouldn’t have been very interesting if it was revealed in the beginning. There wouldn’t be any excitement and anticipation if known earlier. It would be like knowing the climax of a horror movie before watching the film.
The readers get a bit puzzled on the conversation and the turns it makes; and get a sudden relief at the end. They would miss all these, if the fact about confrontational therapy had been revealed in the beginning of the story.

Looking at Language : Vocabulary by Theme (page 97)
​
The words and expressions in the story which reflect Doug’s gloomy mental state are—
​Mumbled, snarled, sighed, glared, ‘I live in hell’, ‘Does my name matter?’

Literary Concept : Theme (page 99)

1.
 Hello………..arguments.
Doug really wanted to die. But, he wanted that the society should know about his death. He seeks some attention from the public. He doesn’t want his body to be detected a few days/months later.

2.
 Which part………..sound logic.
When Sergeant was unable to locate the place and when it immediately turned to regionalism and racial differences. They lost their temper and fired arrows against each other.

3.
 Sergeant……………it work?
He pretended like that as a part of confrontational therapy, to continue the conversation. It worked well, very effectively as the conversation went meandering on topics like accent, nativity, cricketers and patriotism.

4.
 Sir…………….Govinda.
Govinda was unable to hear the other person looking down at Indian Cricketers and he did it intentionally to confront Doug.

5.
 The moment………thinking.
Doug definitely has a behavioural disorder which encouraged him to commit suicide. Considering a general insult more than the personal insult is somewhat strange.


Culture Point : Universal and Local (page 100)

1.
 In all cases…………conclusion.
Anger needs some object to take the outlet and here, Govinda is the one who has to take it. He is the only person on whom Doug could express his anger as he is in a continued conversation with him. Govinda was ready to face Doug’s anger and hence let him vent his anger out.


2.
 The purpose………………consequences.
If there had been a straight talk, Doug would have definitely committed suicide in the heat of the moment. He would have immediately jumped down if Govinda had asked him not to do so.


3.
 Why did…………………..Australia.
The ill feeling between the cricket fans of two countries plays the major role her. Indian students not being properly welcomed in Australia is an impact of India’s growing power over Australia. The Australians are not very ready to accept the impact of India on their socio-economic set up.


4.
 Suicide…………………..reasoned answer.
Suicide, of course, is a heinous crime. Such occurrences could be minimized by spreading awareness in public. People commit suicide in a state of depressed mind. Government could set up a few authorized counseling centers in reach of public. Assurance should be given that the information they share would be held confidentially. Healthy familial relations play a major role in minimizing such occurrences.


5.
 Discuss ……………………. Australia.
Media always try to highlight the events. When there is a natural enmity between countries, media uses it to the extent. But it doesn’t mean that media encourages the differences. It simply throws a light and exaggerates the situations with a vested interest.


Literary Concepts : Satire (page 103)

Barry Rosenberg draws our attention to the significance of confrontational therapy in drawing out a young man of disturbed mental state from his frustration and depression. The story is a satire on the mechanical modern life, racial and regional bias, call center culture, and ill feeling between the cricket lovers of Australia and India.
The personal vices like weak relation between husband and wife, insecurity at work place are focused.
A satirical story could focus on many things, and could make readers think over the issue. But we can’t surely say that this attempt could bring a change in the state of affairs. It depends on the reader’s receptivity.

Literary Concepts : Irony (page 104)

Govinda didn’t really mean what he said. It’s just a part of the confrontational therapy. The sentence is an example of irony. Other ironical phrases in the text are--
​“I live in the hell”
​“How about cloud nine, heaven?”
​“I’m going to jump now, right now, and on your head be it”
​“We could if we used Australian methods”

Literary Concepts : Assonance (page 104)
​
‘Is that Wood as in wood or Would as in could?’—it is the repetition of close vowel sounds and hence it is Assonance. [Alliteration is the repetition of initial identical consonant sounds.]

A few general example phrases for Assonance are—
‘Try to light the fire’
‘It beats….as it sweeps…as it cleans!’

A few general example phrases for Alliteration are—
‘Alice’s aunt ate apples and acorns around August’
‘Peter piper picked s peck of pickled peppers’

Reading Journal (page 105)

Doug decided to commit suicide but he also sought the attention of the world. He didn’t want to die without being noticed by any. So, to leave traces of his death, he called the police to inform about his suicide.
‘An Astrologer’s Day’ is a short funny story by R.K.Narayan. It is the story of a man who used to quarrel and fight with everyone in his village. One day, he beats a man very severely and throws him in a well thinking that he was dead. Later, he moves to a nearby town to save from police and starts his life as an astrologer. A few days later, a man comes to this astrologer and wants to know whether he could find his enemy or not. The astrologer recognizes him to be the same man, who he thought was dead. To protect himself from danger, he says to the man that his enemy was crushed by a lorry. He also advises him not to travel towards South, because that’s where he lives. He finds relief after he goes home and sleeps happily.
The common point in both these stories is that the main point is revealed at the end. Both the stories are in conversational style and hold tactful answers, dragging the conversation to their desired end. Especially, the readers feel great joy and relief when the stories reach their end.


Project (page 107)

Classroom activity:

1.
 Various reasons for the youth to get depressed

•
 Educational stress-heavy syllabus, less time, more expectations
•
 High expectations from parents
•
 Unemployment
•
 Inability to do what they want to
•
 Poverty-inability to meet basic needs
•
 Failure in love
•
 Unexpected failure in studies
•
 Pre-examination depression
•
 Insecurity
•
 Craving for a luxurious life
•
 Familial and financial burdens
•
 State of dilemma between known and unknown
•
 Regional and communal feelings
•
 Eve teasing and gossips
•
 Being cheated
•
 Improper settlement in life
•
 Hyper sensitivity
•
 Lack of confidence and opportunities
•
 Harassment
•
 Misunderstandings
•
 Tough competition from urban students
•
 Boring teaching methodology, no innovativeness
•
 Inability to strike a balance between education, love, family and friends

Consequences of depression

•
 Drug addiction
•
 Getting isolated from the family and society
•
 Being more and more furious or being too calm
•
 Being hyper active or hypo active
•
 Getting irritated all the time
•
 Suicidal tendency
•
 Irrational fear
•
 Instability in walk, talk and attitude
•
 Negative approach in every situation of life
•
 Becoming emotional for silly reasons

2.
Measures which parents, teachers and peers could take to avoid depression in youth.

A depressed person needs a good company and a healthy environment. He should neither be over looked nor over cared. Parents need to spend some value time with their children. They shouldn’t discuss on various unworthy topics. They should see that the youth doesn’t get disturbed. They should assure that they are with them always, to extend emotional support. Parents should allow the children to be open and speak out in a friendly manner. They should look at the positive side and through the eyes of the youth.
As the youth spend most of their time in educational institutions, teachers should observe the depressed students, talk to them personally, know what their problem is, and give moral support. Counseling from a teacher helps a lot. They could guide the youth, give proper suggestions and try to put them on the right track.
Peer group could create a lively environment and hence could bring them out of the depressed state. Discussions on a few topics like present society, the worst conditions they face etc will help them. Friends can successfully turn the attention of these depressed students and divert them from negative mood.
‘Prevention is better than cure’. To avoid depression in youth, parents should be friendly with the youth and think positively. Teachers should not lay too many restrictions. No student should be looked down or insulted. Peer group should stay away from gossiping and commenting. No communal feeling should be brought in friendship.
Taking care of others has its own honour and it is valued above education, knowledge and riches.

After class activity:

Suicide cases of youth as per news paper reports

Andhra Pradesh stands second in suicides as per the Government data. Among them are the suicides committed by farmers, house wives and students. In South India, out of every 3 cases of suicides reported every 15 minutes in India, 1 is committed by a youth in the age of 15 to 29. There are many cases in which a good student commits suicide. Here are 3 reports-

14 August 2012
Manasa (21), a first year M.Tech student of IIT Madras, hung herself in her room on campus. She hails from Ramagundam, AP. Sources say that she took the extreme step because of family problems or because of the academic stress.

16 Aug 2012
Raksha Sharma, a student of Mehar Chand Polytechnic College committed suicide after reading an obscene message about her posted on face book by a former college mate. The two accused boys are arrested.

27 Dec 2012
A 17 year old girl was found dead after swallowing poison. She was gang-raped and the police pressured her to accept for a cash settlement or to drop the case and marry one of her attackers. She was unable to bear the pressure and hence committed suicide.

22 January 2013
Ravindra, a student of I. B.Tech hung himself at his home. He was suffering from severe ache in chest and took the last step when he was unable to bear it.

When we go through all these incidents, it comes to our mind that one single thoughtful moment would save their lives. We shouldn’t take any step or decision in a disturbed mental state or in uncontrollable anger. There would be no such problem that it takes its toll on lives. We could think over the problem in various angles to find out the solution. We could take the opinion of elders and experienced. It helps a lot. And there should be good relation among family members which prevents suicidal tendency.



The Power of A Plate of Rice
                                                                                                                  -Ifeoma Okoye

Understanding the Text : Main Ideas (page 36)

1. Where does the opening part of the story take place?
A. The story takes place in Mr.Aziza’s office. He is the principal of the school in which
Mrs. Cheta Adu works.

2. Describe the office of the Principal, Mr.Aziza.
A. The office looks unpleasant with cheap furniture. It has a spotted green door. His desk was of
medium size. It was made of cheap wood and was thickly varnished. It was so untidy and
clumsy with all the files and papers occupying the desk.

3. Why is it difficult to buy things for the new school year?
A. Christmas and New Year celebrations leave a little money for the rest of January. And for
those who have children, it’s time to buy books and uniforms; and pay fees for the new
academic year with the little money left. It’s highly difficult for those who are not paid
properly.

4. How does Mr.Aziza oblige the people in high places?
A. Mr.Aziza gained favour from the higher officials by giving admission to their children in his
school even though the kids are spoilt and are very weak in studies.

5. How does Mr. Aziza accuse the women teachers?
A. He accuses women teachers that they are lazy lots. He has an impression that women teachers
always take excuses from work.

6. Describe the conditions at Mrs. Cheta Adu’s house.
A. Mrs. Cheta Adu is the sole bread winner in her house. She has to look after the family, but she
is left with no money.

7. Why does Mrs. Cheta Adu consider the elaborate burial ceremony of her husband a waste?
A. It’s because she had to spend the entire saved money and it left them with no balance. She felt
it a mere waste to spend everything in the name her husband, whom she had lost.

8. How did Mrs. Cheta Adu meet her husband?
A. They were at the university together and were posted to the same state for National Youth
Service. They were engaged at the end of their service and married shortly after.

9. Why does Mrs. Cheta Adu borrow money?
A. She hasn’t been paid for 4 months. She was unable to run the family. Additionally, she had to
pay the hospital bills. She borrowed money in order to meet the family expenses.

10. What drastic action does Mrs. Cheta Adu take to save her son from death?
A. She followed Mr.Aziza to his home and irritated him by having his food. She made him
furious and pestered until she received a written slip permitting her to take her salary.

11. What is the response of Mr.Aziza to Mrs.Cheta Adu’s tactic?
A. He was surprised, shocked, taken aback and got irritated. He foamed at his mouth (he was so
furious), and in desperation permitted her to collect her salary from the Bursar.

12. Why do think that the title of the story is appropriate?
A. Mrs. Cheta Adu had been fasting for a few days in order to feed her family. She got tempted
when she happened to smell the delicious food. She ate as if she was taking revenge on the
principal. The principal, himself being very fond of food, got irritated and did what she
wanted to. Ultimately, a plate of rice has got the power to get things done and hence the title
suits the story very aptly.

Looking at Language : Writing Style (page 39)

The reader experiences some sort of tension while reading the story. The tension is medium at
the beginning of the story. As the story progresses, it gets increased and reached maximum as
the story reaches the end. At the end, the reader gets relieved as it was a happy ending.
This happens mainly because of the writing style of the author. Ifeoma Okoye writes in such a
manner that the reader could see the story and experience every feeling that is expressed in
the story.


Looking at Language : Vocabulary by Theme (page 40)

2. smouldering, bubble like a pot of ogbono, bellowed, strode

3. The words appear in paras 2,3,6,8 and 11. They may be new but they seem to be the suitable
words in the context. We could learn new words and enhance our skills. Any narration
becomes impressive only if the suitable words are chosen. Correct word in correct context
gives a sense of fulfillment.

Looking at Language : Vocabulary by Idiom (page 41)

Throw tantrums = sudden bursts of ill temper
•I throw tantrums at my friends if they neglect me any time.
Lay the table = set the dishes on dining table
•My mother lays the table at 8 PM sharp.
His jaw dropped = he was shocked in surprise
•My jaw dropped when I came to know that my friend who is so dull in studies topped the class.
Blazing in fury = severe brightness; hot in anger
•The summer sun blazes in fury leaving us exhausted.
Following me like a dog = go behind the other person wherever he goes, expecting something
from him
•I promised my brother that I would lend him my bike as soon as my work is done. He started following me like a dog from then.
Barked at me = shout loudly at someone
•The woman barked at the maid when she broke a flower vase.
Finding his tongue = speak something, coming to consciousness
•We met with an accident last night. I called the emergency number, finding my tongue.


Find out two African proverbs and find similar proverbs in English or in your native language
(page 42)

Whoever comes last drinks muddy water(African)-------an early bird catches the worm(English)
(it means that we have to take the first opportunity, otherwise we don’t get the best in life)

To borrow is to spoil friendship(African)------------lend money to a friend to lose him(English)
(money may separate even close friends)

When the chief limps, all his subjects limp also(African)---------yadha raja, tatha praja(Telugu)
(if the higher official is corrupted, his subordinates also do the same. If the official is honest, the same is followed by his subordinates)

The forest has ears(African)-----------godaku chevulu untay(Telugu)
(there would be someone who hides and listens to the conversation. So, we must always be cautious)

People get fed up even with honey(African)-------------tinaga tinaga garelu chedu agunu(Telugu)
(we get bored when there is surplus of something)

It will not hurt if your lover steps on you(African)------------istamainadedi kastam kadu(Telugu)
(we don’t take to heart even when someone hurts us, if we like the person)

Hunger does not know an elder(African)------nidra sukhameragadu, akali ruchi eragadu(Telugu)
(we don’t think of the facilities and taste when we are in dire need of something)

Don’t cut a carrying strap for a child before it is born(African)----------alu ledu, chulu ledu, koduku peru Somalingam(Telugu)
(it is not wise to think too much about the future and be prepared for something that might happen)

Axes carried in the same bag cannot avoid rattling(African)-----------oka vora lo rendu kattulu imadavu(Telugu)
(ego problems come in between two people of same intelligence or cadre)

Literary Concept : Theme (page 42)
1.Mr.Aziza……………..Present a reasoned answer.

Mr.Aziza has a bad impression on female teachers. He doesn’t have any soft corner for them. He blames that they have silly reasons to take leaves. He even doesn’t seem to care a damn when he heard that Cheta Adu’s son is hospitalized. He doesn’t respond even a little though he heard her problems and never cared to pay her salary. So, we could say that he is a stone hearted fellow, or a heartless fellow.

2.You’re not going to……………say so?

She was afraid that the boy may fall sick again. She found him in a severe condition. To confirm it and to come to know how he had been since morning, she questioned her mother-in-law about his temperature. She is worried that the boy has been suffering a lot and that it may make him more ill.

3.In paragraph 12…………the author?

It does happen everywhere. Many people try to be in the good looks of the officials and hence, they do a few unethical issues. They do some sort of favour and try to earn brownie points from them. It is seen in almost every sector where the common man has to toe the line (follow the rules) and the officials themselves break the rules for their own benefit.

4.Desperation……………..human nature?

The protagonist Mrs. Cheta Adu gained courage out of desperation. She never had the courage to say a word or act against the principal. But her situation made her so bold that she didn’t care about the consequences. Her only intention is to get her pending salary in order to run the family.

5.Is Mrs. Cheta Adu’s………………..sudden?

It was a sudden action. She actually wanted to plead him or pester him to get the job done. But she was unable to control herself when she had smelt the delicious food. All at a sudden, she started eating the food as if she is taking revenge on Mr.Aziza.

Culture Point : Universal and Local (page 45)
1.Mr.Aziza………..diehard attitude.

Mrs. Cheta Adu, though socially weak, fights for her rights. She didn’t accept her defeat when Mr.Aziza said that he didn’t need any female teachers. Instead, she used the tactic of silence when she was rejected. She broke the patience of the principal and made him recruit her. Later, when her salary was withheld, she tried to explain the situation to the principal. When the principal paid a deaf ear to her, she took the drastic step without giving in and ultimately, proved that she is strong willed.

2.Since…………internet.
Ogbono, garri, egusi, jollof
Ogbono seeds are used to thicken the soup. They give the soup a black colour. The soup may be made of leafy vegetables or meat. It can be eaten with rice or yam.
Garri is a popular West African food made from cassava tubers. The cassava tubers are peeled, washed and grated or crushed to produce a mash. The mash is placed in a porous bag and allowed to ferment for one or two days, while weights are placed on the bags to press water out. It is then sieved and roasted by heating in a bowl. The resulting dry granular garri can be stored for longer periods. It may be pounded or ground to make fine flour.
Egusi seeds are the fat and protein-rich seeds of certain gourd, melon or squash plants. These seeds are used in making soups.
Jollof is a type of rice like basmati used to cook biryani, fried rice etc.

3.Even the names………..paragraph 17?

All the names in the story seem to be unique, including the name of the author. The unique names we could spot in 17th Para are…Dulue and Rapulu.

4.In this story…..such tribes?

It is difficult to hold and carry a baby in arms all the time. The easiest and safest way is to hold it by tying to the back. We could carry the baby and go with other household work at the same time.

5.The power of…………..they do it?

Mrs. Cheta Adu and her mother-in-law help each other in the story. They live together, sharing their difficult times. The mother-in-law gives company to her daughter-in-law and looks after the children during the day. Mrs. Cheta Adu takes the responsibility of the house and children from the evening. She comforts her mother-in-law when she is back from school. Mother-in law gives moral support to her daughter-in-law and the daughter-in-law gives financial support to her mother-in-law.

6.I ate quickly………………think so?

It’s a sort of revenge. Mrs. Adu could do nothing more than that. She couldn’t complain to higher officials or couldn’t dare speak harsh to the principal. She took pleasure in irritating him. She enjoyed the feeling that she was able to put the principal in a confused state.

Literary Concepts : Symbolism (page 48)

1.How does…………………of what?

Yes, the plate of rice functions as a symbol. It symbolizes the benefits of a privileged society. Everything goes well when we are with all the facilities. When a man is unable to fulfill his hunger, he gets disturbed and frustrated. It has its impact on a person’s state of mind. In the present story, the mother-in-law starts nagging, the children start to cry and make a mess over small things, and the protagonist starts scolding her students for no reason. These happened because the family is not well fed. The principal came to know the value of food when it is unexpectedly snatched from him.

Literary Concepts : Strife and Victory (page 48)

1.The story…………….profile of hers.

Mrs. Cheta Adu is a woman with many qualities. We could see a sensitive lover in her. She is a responsible person who takes care of her family. She is dutiful too, both at school and at home. We find gratefulness in her character when she thinks of her mother and her mother-in-law. She becomes a strong-willed woman when she has to face the crisis in life. She is humble and honest. She has some sense of humour too which gets revealedwhen she describes the principal and his office. She has a good friendly nature which allowed her friends to lend her money. She has individualistic nature and hence doesn’t like to borrow again and again. She becomes stubborn at times, when she has to. She has fighting spirit and hence fights for her rights. She is gentle, who never likes to hurt others. All in all, she is a woman with many good qualities.

2.The protagonist…………….happened then.

If the protagonist had no family, she wouldn’t have taken the same drastic step. It wouldn’t bother much when one has no family, even if the salaries are given a bit late.She would have requested the principal and get her salary or wait until it is given. She wouldn’t have taken any steps and try to bear the situation until it works out well.

3.What is……………….an attitude?

Mr.Aziza has a strong opinion that female teachers, especially the married ones are not worth working. He believes that they try to escape from work; they are lazy and always find some or other reason to skip the work. He justifies his attitude whenever a teacher applies for a leave or skips school. He repeatedly gives the same opinion that they come to work but are irresponsible. That’s the reason behind withholding the salary of Mrs. Cheta Adu. He justifies his action saying that she has taken leave without prior intimation.

4.A turning point………………question.

Mrs. Cheta Adu led a happy life until her husband was alive. There was a sudden stroke of misfortune when she lost him in an accident. She had to spend all the saved money for her husband’s burial. Now, she has become the sole bread winner in the family. Everyone is dependent on her---- her mother-in-law and her two children. The situation might more or less be the same with every woman that becomes a widow. Cheta Adu faced the situation so boldly even though she has no penny in her hand. She tried her best to save the life of her son. She ran the family with great confidence and patience.

Reading Journal (page 51)

Why does Mr.Aziza………………..general mental outlook?

Mr. Aziza is the principal of a reputed school. It’s quite natural that he behaves in a superior manner with his subordinates. He, in personal, has a low opinion on female teachers. It might be because of a few instances he had faced in the due course of his career. It might also be because of the age old views of the society that are imbibed in him. He would have digested the male attitude that women shouldn’t be given equal rights, opportunities and value.
The social system adds to this mental attitude. Many people support the idea that women are meant to stay indoors. Male ego doesn’t accept a woman to be equally qualified or equally valued in the society. They have a false opinion that women look down at them if they are treated well.
Recently, we could see the comments made by a few politicians and spiritual leaders regarding the Delhi rape incident. They blame the woman for not taking safety measures and for being in western wear. It goes like this in society that woman with individualistic character is supposed to be arrogant. If she is very social and maintains friendly relations, she is supposed to be a loose character. If she is very courageous, brave and trendy, she is treated to be untraditional. Women, who are capable of balancing the work at home and in work place are to be respected and are to be given some moral and emotional support. But, the society considers them to be a threat to the male kingdom. This false mental outlook needs a change.
Mr. Aziza might be a man of having such wrong perceptions and false impressions.

Project (page 53)

After class activity

I found out many new things when I interviewed a house maid. Padma, who is separated from her husband lives with her two daughters. She is the sole bread winner in the family. She has little education and hence, opted to work in a few houses nearby. She helps the women in their day to day chores and is paid for that. As she works in nearly 5 to 6houses, she gets some good amount of money as her salary, ranging from 4 to 5 thousand a month. But she doesn’t lead a very happy life. The reason behind is, she has to look after all the needs of her family.
She doesn’t have emotional support as she got separated from her husband. And, she has to face a few problems from the neighbours. She doesn’t want her children to become like her and hence she joined them in a reputed school. But it left a lot of burden on her in the form of fees, uniforms and books. She has to pay the rent and give some money to her husband whenever he comes and picks a fight with her.
Occasionally, one or other falls ill in the family and she has to pay the hospital bills. She remains with no money by the end of every month. Adding to this, her father who irons clothes fell severely ill. So, now she has to look after her parents and the shop they run as well. She irons clothes in her free time and tries to meet the entire expenses of the family.
She runs the family with a hope that her children would acquire good education. She also planned for their future. She saves some money in post office, regularly. She bought a few ornaments for her girls and a piece of land on her name.
In this way, her life moves on with a few obstacles, hindrances and pressures. She keeps her fingers crossed in hope of better future.


FAMADIHANA AND OTHER RITUALS
                                                                         -Jayashree Mohanraj

1.What is the geographical location of Madagascar?
ans.It is located in the Indian Ocean, 400km in the east of Africa, 130km from the equator and 7000km from the South Pole. The tropic of Capricorn crosses its southern part.

2.How did Madagascar become united politically in the 19th and 20th century?
ans.It was united and rule by noble men, later which the French have conquered and
absorbed and in 1960, it gained its independence.

3.What happens during the circumcision ceremony?
ans.All the friends and relatives are invited, a big feast is prepared and people party all
night. The child is circumcised at dawn and is gifted with toys, money, chocolates
etc. after the process.

4.How are the Malagasy people buried?
ans.The Malagasy people are buried in their family tomb which their ancestors have built and families have renovated. This tomb stone could accommodate the dead bodies of generations.

5.Who are known as the ‘gods on earth’?
ans.The dead are believed to be the gods in earth. They are the most important and authoritative members of the family.

6.What link does Famadihana reaffirm in Madagascar?
a.It reaffirms the link between the living and the dead.

7.Why is Famadihana like a family re-union?
ans.It resembles the spirit of the family. They come together to celebrate and invite their ancestors to the feast. They take part in unwrapping and rewrapping the ancestors.

8.For how long is the tomb sealed after Famadihana is over?
a.It is sealed for 5 years. The ancestors rest in solitude for five long years after which,Famadihana is again repeated.

9.Why are the ancient tomb fields popular tourist attractions?
ans.It’s because they offer an insight into the rich culture of Madagascar.

10.In which corner of the house are the chickens kept?
ans.Chickens are kept in the south-western corner.

11.What is ‘fady’?
ans.‘Fady’ is the word in Malagasy which means ‘taboo’. Socially unacceptablebehavior is given the name ‘fady’.

12.What role has Christianity played in shaping the beliefs of the Malagasy people?
ans.Christianity led to the demise of idol worship but hasn’t challenged the strength of traditional beliefs. They invite the pastor to attend a Famadihana and place a cross on the tomb.

Looking at language: writing style (page-70)

Four rituals and three taboos are mentioned. The rituals of engagement,
circumcision, burying and Famadihana are mentioned. Taboos like sitting in door
way at the time of sprouting, refusing hospitality and denying hospitality are
mentioned.

Looking at language: vocabulary by theme (page-71)

Famadihana, fady, andriana, zanahary, razana, zebu, lamba, ombiasy, mpanandro,
vientina.

Literary concept: Theme (page-71)

1.
Write a brief note on the history of Madagascar.
ans. Life on Madagascar began 2500 years ago when Indonesians started to immigrate.Malaysians, Polynesians and east Africans too migrated to Madagascar. The fragmented island was brought together under the noble rule. Later, the French took the power and at last in 1960, it gained its freedom.

2.How is the population of Madagascar constituted? is there a relation ship between the words Madagascar and Malagasy?
ans. Madagascar has 18 ethnic groups in 22 regions. Malagasy comes from the word
Madagascar. The official language and the people of Madagascar are called
Malagasy.

3.How are the engagement ceremonies of the Malagasy people solemnized? Is there any particular age for engagements or marriage?
  ans. There is no particular age for engagement or marriage. The families of bride andgroom come together to celebrate. The groom comes with a gift to prospective in-laws. He also comes with a ring to the bride. They have great feast, later. Marriage ceremony is performed a few days or weeks later.

4.The Malagasy tradition of burying people is the center piece of this essay. Why are the dead bodies taken out of the tombs and felicitated by the members of the family?
  ans. The Malagasy have a firm belief that the dead or the creators of customs, sources of life, channels between god and the living. It is believed that they have the power toaffect the fortunes. Above all they believe that the dead are the gods on earth.

5.A community or religion is often affected by outside influences. How has it taken place in Madagascar?
ans. It is obvious that a community is affected by outside influences. The Malagasy have adopted Christianity and Muslim traditions too.

Culture point: Famadihana (page-73)1.Societies……….during Famadihana.
ans. Famadihana is held on Saturday as it is considered sacred. The entire ritual is done
by close relatives, guided by an astrologer. The body is taken out, and a crowd
dances around the tombs. The body is laid on floor, washed and wrapped in a red
silk shroud. Silent prayers are done; the body is gently pressed and then thrown
into the air. Dances continue. The body is sprinkled with perfume and showered
with flowers and gifts like a bottle of rum, picture and a few bank slips. The body is
again placed on its stone and the tomb is closed immediately. It is followed by
dances and a huge feast.

Culture point: fady (page-74)1.Taboos……. Madagascar?
ans. One shouldn’t sit in the door way while the rice is sprouting. The door way is symbolically represented to birth. And hence it is believed that sitting in a door way obstructs birth which means lessen the yield of crop. It ultimately leads to lack of food and hence considered to be a threat to the community.

Culture point: space and time (page-74)

1.The Madagascar……. Beliefs.
ans. East and North are considered to be superior to West and South respectively. North East is believed to be the most favorable direction. North East corner is reservedfor prayers. Guests are seated on northern side; chickens are kept on South Western corner. Houses are built in North South axis.

Culture point: alien and local beliefs (page-75)

1.Indian culture ……….other traditions there?
  ans. Christianity and tradition in Madagascar have been blend so well that they can’t go apart. Christians too follow the special ritual with out losing their traces in Christianity. They believe that the dead turn tomb christens and show path to the alive.

Literary concept: non-fiction (page 75)

1.Fiction……. Such details?
ans. Whatever presented is a fact. It is a factual presentation of certain rituals and tradition. We could verify it by surfing internet or by reading books and journals on tribal traditions. We can easily come to know about these rituals when we learn aboutMadagascar and even through the tourist they have visited the place. It is a journalistic essay and hence, facts alone will be presented.

Literary concept: theme (page-76)

1.Theme ……… particular essay?
ans. The theme of this essay is the belief in the existence of close ties between the living and dead. The Malagasy religious social values have their foundation in their traditional beliefs. The theme is the belief in tradition which supports; intimate relation and strong bond between people; the dead and the alive.

Literary concept: metaphor (page-77)

1.A metaphor……… this expression?
ans. It is symbolically represented that sitting in door way obstructs growth and birth. Sprouting is compared to birth and door way is compared to ‘gate-way’ of birth. As birth is obstructed if some thing is in its way, sprouting field will be obstructed or it won’t give proper yield if compared metaphorically.

Reading journal (page-78)

1.Summarize the facts given in the essay in above 300 words.
ans. The essay gives many facts that are prevalent in Madagascar the facts of immigration, socio-political scenario, capture of island by the French and the island securing freedom are given very clearly.
The fact that Malagasy follow certain weird rituals is projected. Various rituals like
Engagement, circumcision, burying the dead and Famadihana are practiced by the
Malagasy.
It is a fact that the ancient tomb fields attract many tourists and the inflow of
tourists is high during the time of Famadihana.
Various taboos and beliefs prevail on the island and the traditional values are well
taken into consideration.

Project

1.Vastu and the logic behind it

Vastu is a logical explanation of scientific truths and facts. The Vastu Principles are related with the properties (Natural Energies) of our Mother Earth. . It simply says that the sources of energies are to be open and the flow of energies is not to be disturbed. The morning Sun is considered especially beneficial and purifying and hence the East is a treasured direction

Vastu Shastra is based upon two important scientific facts:
1. Magnetic Property of the Earth and the gravitational and magnetic forces created by the
materials inside the Earth.
2. Rotation of the Earth on its axis, and the centrifugal and other forces created by its movements.
Today the scientific knowledge is much more than the knowledge of yesterday, but far too less compared with that of tomorrow. So naturally, what used to be considered a miracle, yesterday, can be rationally explained today. And what is still unexplained, or thought of as a miracle today, will be explained tomorrow, rationally.
Here, a few superstitions and beliefs that have been followed in India for ages are rationalized.
One should not sweep after dark- The Logic-In earlier times, when there were only poor lighting systems, one reason must have been the fear of losing valuables, (like a small gold earring). The other reason must have been that the splinters of the broom, when swept were prone to catch fire from the lamps causing the risk of a fire.
One should not pluck leaves, flowers of trees after dark – The Logic – One reason could be that there is the danger of getting stung by insects, snakes, thorns etc in the poor lighting. The other reason could be that one should not disturb nature, when she is resting, because like humans nature also needs rest.
One should not give nor hand over nor exchange tamarind, salt, fire, light, lamps etc from hand to hand. The Logic- It may be to signify that nobody should be in a situation to beg or ask for basic essentials which should be available free for all to take without asking anyone.
One should not use someone else’s shoes, ornaments, clothes, or water glass. The Logic - It is unhygienic to use other people’s shoes, clothes and drinking glass. It is a risk to use other’s ornaments because if they get lost, it can cause problems.
If one stamps on another person’s cut nails, they will start hating each other. The Logic – One reason could be that one’s nails may be poisonous to another person, if it pierces the skin. The other reason may be a reminder that however useless the nails of a person may be, by stamping on them, it is like stamping on the ego of the person.
One should not sleep with the feet towards the South, as it is considered a sign of disrespect to the elders. The Logic- The North-South magnetic axis affects our bodies at a micro level without us realisng it. Since our body is like a magnet, with the North Pole at the Head, one should avoid sleeping with the feet facing South as the head in the North will repel the magnetic North of the Earth, causing some irritations in the mind.
One shall not place fire embers under a bed, nor at the foot of the bed when sleeping. The Logic- The cot may catch fire while you are sleeping and you may accidentally step on the hot embers when you wake up sleepily in the night to go to the toilet.
One shall not pass urine facing the wind, the fire or the Sun. The Logic- This is to prevent the urine from getting carried away with the wind to someone else.
One should not step over a rope to which a calf is tied.The Logic – When you try to step over the rope, the calf may be frightened and suddenly jump away causing you to trip.
One should not run when it rains. The Logic- It is obvious that the ground will be slippery when it rains, and though you may want to run for shelter, it may be wiser to walk carefully.
One should never look at the Sun when it is eclipsed or at noon. The Logic – It is obvious that the strong U-V rays of the sun can affect your eyes.
Though Vastu Shastra is considered by many to be an orthodox science and superstition, in reality, it is an architectural science and its guidelines and rules can be explained logically and scientifically.
[Courtesy………architectureideas.info]


2. Special rituals in various communities

Every country has its own strange and special rituals. Every religion, tribe and group hastheir own rituals and practices which may seem funny, scary, weird, gross or cruel.

The Zulu Tribes have a ritual of drinking animal blood. They believe that it gives them energy. They also have a ritual of circumcision. The young boys are covered with white dust all over face and body. They use sharp rocks or spear blades for the circumcision process. Later, the wounds are dressed with mud and animal excrement to stop bleeding. It may result in severe injuries, disfigured genitals and even death.

The Masai Tribe of Kenya has a ritual of drinking fresh human blood as well as animal blood. Young girls are sacrificed to the gods and then the people drink the freshly collected blood. Later, the body is cut into pieces and then burnt. The Masais also undergo the painful circumcision process for both male and female.

The Sambia Tribe in Papua New Guinea has a strange ritual. The Sambia males undergo an initiaon ritual performed by the village tribes. Male villagers are separated from females. At an early age of 5, young Sambia boys are poked with sharp sticks inside their nose and allow it to bleed and they are forced to drink their blood. They call this blood, ‘male milk’. This practice is a kind of menstruation for the Sambia males. After many years of repeated rituals, the boys are allowed to marry. They believe that they get contaminated by the females. So, after sex and marriage the Sambian male bathe with mud as to cleanse themselves. They believe that male will be influenced by females and hence they live in groups away from female and thus become homosexuals.

The most heinous ritual practiced in China is foetus cannibalism. The soup made of cooked placentas and the dishes made of fetuses are considered to be health and beauty supplements. Male fetuses are given prime importance. It remained unexplored until a truck with fetuses was seized in Yulin while transportation.

The Indian rituals we are well aware of are- ayudha puja which mean worshipping the weapons; varuna yagna which mean offering prayers to rain god in expectance of rains; fire cleansing ritual like walking on hot coals in order to get purified.


MORNING BELLS
                                       -Jayashree Mohanraj

1.What do rag pickers do?
    ans.  Rag pickers wake up early in the morning, go from garbage bin to garbage bin filling their jute sacks with the material like broken plastics, tins, cans and bottles which they think could fetch them some money.

2.How did Chotu, Ramu, Irfan and Munna come together?
    ans .They came together by providence. Chotu ran away from home; Ramu was sent away; Irfan and Munna don’t have a home at all. All four of them once met at a dumping yard and started to live together.

3.Why was the old municipal sweeper kind to them?
      ans.The sweeper would have felt bad for their lives and hence has been kind to them. He extended the help he could do to them.

4.What did Chotu discover inside the garbage bin?
ans. Chotu discovered an infant in the garbage bin. He found it while he was searching the bin.

5.Why had the female infant supposedly been left there?
  ans. It might have been an unwanted child, may be a result of pre/extra marital relation or might because it’s a female child. Many families in our society don’t accept a female child.

6.What did Ramu do with it?
  ans. Ramu bent into the bin and gathered the infant in his hand. They wrapped it in an old news paper and put the bundle in the jute sack.

7.Where did they go with the small bundle?
ans. They went to the abandoned car shed which happens to be their home.

8.Why were people going to the temple?
ans. People go to temple for many reasons. Be it like – to seek blessings, to wash off their sins, to satisfy them selves for being so devotional, to impress others by being pious, and to attain peace of mind….etc.

9.Why did one of the beggars want to adopt Ramu?
ans.  One of the beggars had taken fancy for Ramu. He wanted to adopt him because he has no one living with him. He wanted to make Ramu his son, so that he would get some company and also that he could take a break once in a while, assigning his duty to Ramu.

10. What did Chotu buy outside the temple?
  ans. Chotu bought some flowers and a few incense sticks.

11. What did they do with the body of Chutky?
  ans. They dug a pit in one corner of the shed, placed the body in the pit and coveredwith mud. They kneeled beside the pit, put flowers, lit incense sticks and prayed a moment for her soul to rest in peace.

12. What message do you get from the story?
ans. - The real prayer lies in empathy and sympathy for others.
- One should never forget the humanitarian principles and values.
- A minor positive action is better than a huge improper behavior
- Small deeds done are better than great deeds planned.

Looking at Language : Writing Style [page 11]

Para 4 – Chotu had run away from home…. (loose)
Para 18- He walked towards….. (loose)
Para 18- The priest …. (periodic)
Para 21- once they were……newspaper (periodic)
Para 16- But with……. Freedom (periodic)
Para 6- Chotu pulled up…….. (balanced)
Day shines brightly, night glitters brightly (balanced)
Do the work you love, love the work you do (balanced).

Sympathy is an expression ………. Give examples. (Page 12)
Both sympathy and empathy are shown in the four characters. The rich and the pious
people are described in sarcastic manner. The beggar and the sweeper have also
shown sympathy for the rag pickers

Looking at Language : Regional Flavour (page12)
Native words or regional words as we say, don’t always have equivalents in
English; when the word are related to tradition especially. Local words leave a
positive feeling on local readers and a sense of belongingness. A reader could easily
connect with the writer and the plot when he comes across regional language.
The regional words that are used in second lesson are – harmattan , ogbono, garri,
egusi, jollof.
We face some inconvenience when such regional words are used but at the same
time, it gives us an opportunity to come to know foreign words and their usage. Usage
of regional words give a sense of enthusiasm to readers.

Literary concept: Theme (page 14)

1.The phrase……….symbolize?
ans. It symbolizes the small but apt response which is very much essential. It indirectly states the necessity of empathy and the need fro action. It alarms against what is to be done and what not to be done.

2.Rationalist …………. one another?
ans. We could say that they are bellow the poverty line and don’t have positive family
backdrop. They are not accepted their families fro some or other reasons. These became the common factor behind their meet and bond with each other.

3.What kind of person…….driven?
ans. It might a person who couldn’t tolerate the birth of a female or a person who tried to get rid of the unwanted birth or a women who didn’t wish to face the consequences for having delivered a female child.

4.What prompts……… in the shed?
ans. They would have identified them selves in the infant, they very well know that it
would be torn in to pieces if left in the bin. They didn’t want the innocent face to
have such an end.

5.Each closed group………with the beggars?
ans. As every group has its own code of conduct, so is the case with beggars. They
have a set of rules to be followed which seen shocking to outsiders. Their team
work may evoke jealousy in others.

6.Explain why the boys………..infant?
ans. ‘Chutki’ means the smallest and the cutest one. They would have chosen the name
because its an infant who looked cute and had a short life.

Culture point : Female Infanticide (page 17)

Satya Meva Jayate, Aamir Khan’s maiden television show made the country hooked to their television sets one fine Sunday morning. It came as a surprise package of overwhelming emotions and disturbing facts clubbed together in a laudable concept and notice-worthy script. It’s about the female infanticide in India.

We regularly see the headlines in news papers like, ‘The body of an infant found’, ‘Father killed his daughter’, ‘Abandoned infant found’. It’s hard to believe that these heinous acts happen in a country like India, where women are given prime honour traditionally.

Reports say that a whopping 78,847 girls in Andhra Pradesh have fallen prey to either female infanticide or female foeticide between 2005 and 2011, according to government officials who have investigated the rapid decline in the Child Sex Ratio (CSR) in the state.

Sex selection may be one of the contributing factors of infanticide. According to a recent report by one of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) up to 50 million girls and women are missing in India’s population as a result of systematic sex discrimination. Hence, strict laws are framed against sex revelation during pregnancy.

Infanticide is often a response to an unwanted birth. Preventing unwanted pregnancies through improved sex education and increased contraceptive access are advocated as ways of preventing infanticide. Some say that where abortion is illegal, as in Pakistan, infanticide would decline if safer legal abortions were available.

Screening for psychiatric disorders or risk factors, and providing treatment or assistance to those at risk may help prevent infanticide.

Granting women employment raises their status and autonomy. Having a gainful employment can raise the perceived worth of females. This can lead to an increase in the number of women getting an education and a decrease in the number of female infanticide. As a result, the infant mortality rate will decrease and economic development will increase.

Culture point: Hypocrisy (page-18)

People express………….. religion

The hypocritical show is clearly depicted in morning bells. They are concerned with rituals alone and not the true sense of prayer and the essence of religion. A religion teaches to be piteous to others, tom serve them and to help. But it is notfollowed by the temple-goers in the stories.

Culture point: Economy

Relate ………………story
A temple promotes service and sympathetic approach from the down trodden. It
enables service to the needy. It gives the scope to give the society whatever needed

Culture point: Beggary

He means that one could do easy money through begging. One need not work hard
or struggle for survival if he begs. He considers begging to be a sort of
employment.

Culture point: Abandoned children (page-20)  

The temple goers concerned about them selves and their family alone. They are not kind enough like the rag pickers. The rag pickers have been nearer to god by displaying their generosity, sympathy and kindness.

Reading Journal (page-20)  

Re-narrate the story from chutki’s view point.

I was very happy to enter this world and have been counting seconds fro myarrival. I was proud that I am a female but happiness didn’t last long. As soon as I was born, I had to face the rejection fro being a female. No one was ready to feed, touch me or even to look at me. I was astonished by their reaction. Even more, my mother was blamed and abused fro having given birth to me, a female one. She pleaded every one but couldn’t convince them finally, I was secretly thrown into a garbage bin. I struggle for a while to breathe but had to give up after a few minutes. I was found by some rag pickers. They took me home dissatisfying a stray dog which was eager to eat me. They stopped on their way to buy a few flowers and some incense sticks. They were given awful looks by the pious and rich people over there.
A pit was dug in their home. I was placed inside the pit and was covered bymud; they put the followers and lit the incense sticks. They prayed fro me on kneels. I lied there peacefully, happy fro the burial.

Project (page 21)

1.An article on Rag-Pickers
ans. Rag pickers play an important, but usually unrecognized role in the waste management system of Indian cities. They collect garbage in search of recyclable items that can be sold to scrap merchant (paper, plastic, tin...) This activity requires no skill and is a source of income for a growing number of urban poor. In India, over a million people find livelihood opportunities through waste picking.

Rag pickers are mostly women who come from the most marginalized groups of the population and often live in unauthorized slums in the poorest neighbourhood.
Studies also show that rag pickers are most of the time migrants who had fled their city or village because of hard living conditions. The vast majority of the rag pickers are Dalits or minorities.

Many children begin working as rag pickers at the young age of five or six years.Most of them never attend school and don’t have any formal education. Their families are generally in need of extra incomes from their children.

There are two categories of child rag pickers: the street pickers, who collect garbage in street bins or residential areas, and dump pickers who work on dumping grounds.

Girls were traditionally more involved in rag picking than boys, but adolescent girls are less involved in rag picking because it is believed to be unsafe for them to be out on the street. They are involved in taking care of the house chores and help in sorting the collected garbage from home.

Some of the child rag pickers go to school and work the other part of the day or during holidays. Some girls are found working as rag pickers in the morning, sometimes attending school in the afternoon and coming back home in theevening to help their mother with the household chores or to care for their younger siblings.

Impact of rag picking on the life of children
They have to face several health issues as they always work in filthy environment. They are prone to many diseases like respiratory problems, anemia, fever etc.
They don’t show any interest to go to school and hence remain illiterates. They even withdraw from schools as they could earn money through rag picking.

Some improvements in their work conditions
Many NGOs are supporting the rag pickers to gain access to the basic services (health care, health insurance, education and vocational training). They also provide legal support or counselling sessions and help them form unions to speak up for their rights.

In some cities, their work has been partly recognized and their situation thus improved. In Pune, the municipal corporation now issues identity cards to rag pickers and offers a limited health insurance plan, recognizing their contribution to recycling waste in the city

This acknowledgement can have a positive impact on reducing child labour by increasing the parent’s income therefore reducing their dependence on the money their children earn.

Case Study – Narasaraopet

Kumari, 11 years old, has 3 brothers. Her father died; and her mother is weak and gets sick very often. She and her 12-year-old brother are the bread winners of the family.
Kumari’s day begins early morning; she cooks rice, prepares tea and goes with her brother round the town for rag picking. She returns home when the sun is highin the sky. After taking bath and meal she looks after her younger brother. Around 3 pm she starts second round of rag picking and comes back around 7 PM. She cooks the evening meal and does other house hold work.
She dreams to become teacher but hardly find any time to go to school. She wants to play with the doll, which she found during her daily rag collection. She is growing up and has lots of questions but no one to answer them. She dreams of collecting lots of money and going back to school and lead a life she wanted to.

2. The Rights of the child
Every human being under the age of 18 is considered to be a child. While all children need protection, some need special attention. They are- homeless children, orphaned or abandoned children, child beggars, children of sex workers, children affected by natural disasters, children suffering from terminal diseases, disabled children etc.
The Indian Constitution has a framework within which ample provisions exist for the protection, development and welfare of children. There are a wide range of laws that guarantee children their rights and entitlements as provided in the Constitution and in the UN Convention.

Every child has the following rights, as per the Indian Constitution-
Right to free and compulsory education for all children in the 6-14 year age group (Article 21A)
Right to be protected from any hazardous employment till the age of 14 years (Article 24)
Right to be protected from being abused and forced by economic necessity to enter occupations unsuited to their age or strength (Article 39(e))
Right to equal opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and guaranteed protection of childhood and youth against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment (Article 39(f))
Right to equality (Article 14)
Right against discrimination (Article 15)
Right to personal liberty and due process of law (Article 21)
Right to being protected from being trafficked and forced into bonded labour (article 23)
Right of weaker sections of the people to be protected from social injustice and all forms of exploitation (Article 46)
These rights could be put in simple as-
The right to education
The right to Expression
The right to information
The right to Nutrition
The right to Health and Care
The right to protection from Abuse
The right to protection from Exploitation
The right to protection from Neglect
The right to development
The right to Recreation
The right to Name and Nationality
The right to Survival
Every child has the right to avail his rights and it’s the prime duty of the government and the elders to see that every child utilizes the rights provided for him.

3. Eco-friendly Garbage Management

Waste management is an important part of infrastructure for cities, towns and countries. Today’s busy lives are interested to use everything that is disposable and it generates piles of waste in the environment.

The Namakkal Municipality can be taken as an ideal municipality which has become Zero Garbage Town from 01.07.2003. It has implemented various activities in order to achieve this. They followed steps like—door to door collection of garbage with segregation, sale of recyclable waste, manufacturing vermin compost from organic waste, door to door collection and sweeping on all holidays and Sundays, 100% removal of garbage daily etc. It has become the first Dust bin free town in the world.

We should try to practice a few of these steps to make our town, an eco friendly one. Firstly, the people of the town need to be motivated well. We should see that every person comes forward and co-operate. We should take the individual responsibility in managing the waste.

Let’s say NO to plastic and toxic products. It’s always better to carry a cloth bag when you go shopping. We should avoid excess packing. Paper packing is better than plastic as it is degradable.

We should buy the eco-friendly products only. It’s better to buy durable products instead of disposable and cheap products. We would better buy items that could be reused and recycled.

We should try to repair the items before replacing them. We can pass the unwanted items to our friends and family. Let’s not dump the E-waste (printers, coffee machines, refrigerators etc.) Instead, we could donate them to the needy.

Let’s not throw everything on the roads and create a mess. Let’s reduce the waste we produce like paper waste and organic waste.

Waste management is something that should be a joint effort between government, industries and citizens. Our planet suffered a tremendous damage due to mass dumped products. Recycling the products will reduce the strain on our environment and our resources.

Being aware of the products we use is contributing to the future of our planet. Waste management is manageable only if everyone does his or her part in keeping our planet healthy.

TSUNAMI RELIGION
Understanding the Text: Main ideas
1.      Laughter and Bells of happiness constantly rang from house no.22
2.      The inmates of House no.22 were always together and joyful.
3.      It was a happy family and it had drawn a rainbow of happiness on the street.
4.      The narrator got a chance to pull himself beside Mr. X from house no.22 without any congestion charge.
5.      Mr. Karan Patel was a fine Indian gentleman who held a prestigious Chief executive position in an American Company.
6.      He wanted bring up his daughter on his own.
7.      Meera loved eating bananas and Patong in Thai means ‘the forest filled with banana leave’. So Meera had chosen Patong beach located in Phuket.
8.      Her mom said to her that she was missing both of them and wanted them to be with her; but the time was not right.
9.      Tsunami, a giant monstrous wave about thirty feet high consumed the earth.
10.  A young girl of about thirteen years was lying on the bed next to Karan Patel.
11.  Karan Patel found his daughter in Kamala Beach.
12.  The religion of Munira was Islamic.
13.  The religion of Karan Patel and his family was Hinduism.

Looking at language: vocabulary by Phrasal verb (page no.125)
1.      Moved into – take possession of new house
Ex: Victoria moved in with her new boy friend.
2.      Pull up- Come to a halt
Ex: he pulled up outside the cottage.
3.      Brought up-  to bring up
She was partly brought up by her maternal grandparents.
4.      Make of- Make something into
Cricket bats are made of willow.
5.      Look for- attempt to find
Ravi is looking for you.
6.      Get up- rise
Get up early in the morning.
7.      Rushed off- be very busy.
Ex:
8.      Ran down: reduce in size
Ex: the battery has run down.
9.      Looked up: He looked her up when he was in his area.

Literary Concept: Theme (Page no: 127)
1.      Yes, I agree with Mrs.Wellington words. The three of them were always together and joyful and had drawn a rainbow of happiness in their street.
2.      Premonition means a strong feeling that something is about to happen especially something unpleasant. Premonition has give prior intimation to Karen Patel that unavoidable situation is going to happen but they may turn up safely.
3.      It’s a Happy New Year to Karen Patel as it has given him new life to him and to his daughter and added a new member in his family.
4.      ‘Tsunami Religion’ differs from common man’s notion of religion and religious beliefs. It creates a society where there is no place for caste, creed, and religion and people of this society work together with coordination and cooperation.
5.      Act of adopting Munira is a spontaneous reaction. Munira was a girl of thirteen years who lost her family members in Tsunami. Mr.Karan Patel was also separated from his only daughter from Tsuanmi. During this time, he came across Munira who was next to his bed and weeping continuously for her helpless situation. Mr. Karan had found resemblances of his daughter in her and his heart felt both for his daughter and Munira. When he found his daughter and Munira in Kamala beach, he decided to adopt Munira and treat her as his own daughter.
6.      He had understood the true meaning of life. After the death of his wife, he searched happiness in his daughter and decided to bring up Meera on his own. Ever after the tragic happening of Tsunami , he did not lose his will and with confidence he searched for his daughter. He learned to live cheerfully and joyfully.
7.      Yes, we support the decision taken by Mr.Karan Patel. If he had remarried, he would have concentrated on new and he would have neglected his daughter. The personality of a child does not depend either she is brought up by a single parent or both but it depends upon the affection and concentration they show on baby.
8.      It enhances our religious and social values.
It gives us an opportunity for re-union of family members and friends.
9.      People of Thailand are sympathetic to the victims of disaster.
Two instances that exhibit the sympathetic attitude of the people of Thailand-
a)      Karan was helped by the volunteers in search of his daughter.
b)      His daughter was taken care of by the volunteers and they were eagerly trying to pass on the information to her relations.
10.    The area was affected badly by Tsunami. Houses were flattened and people were scavenging through leftovers. Only little remained to cater the needs of the survivors.
11.  If I was Karen Patel, I would have done the same. Religion, caste and creed are the walls built by mankind. One should not confine oneself to these boundaries.
   
Literary Concepts: Simile. (Page no- 132)
1.      Simile is a figure of speech that describes something by comparing or establishing its similarity to something else. Some examples with their meanings:
1.      As cool as cucumber – cool headed.
2.      As gentle as lamb – Gentle- non reactive.
3.      To drink like fish - to drink a lot.
4.      To sleep like a log - to sleep soundly.
5.      As wise as an owl - very wise.

Literary Concepts: Personification (Page -132)
1.      The alarm clock screams at me every morning.
2.      Art is a jealous mistress.
3.      The sun was playing hide and seek with the clouds.
4.      My computer hates to do my homework
5.      Season off mists and mellow fruitfulness close bosom- friends of the maturing sun(Ode to Autumn)

Literary Concepts: Metaphor (page -132)
1.      Expressions like ‘angel’ and ‘puppet’ convey his affection for his daughter. It takes time for Mr.KaranPatel to use such expressions to Munira as she is not his own daughter and adopted by him after the devastating situation.

Reading Journal:
1.      She is shocked and preoccupied with the pain of Munira.
2.      The short story titled ‘Man from Kabul’ by Rabindra Nath Tagore is similar to this story. In ‘Man from Kabul’ , there was a man known as Kabuliwallah. He had left his family behind in Afghanistan to make his way through life and during this time he began longing to see his daughter. Then one day he came across a young girl named Mini whom he felt resembled his daughter and become attached.
           In ‘Tsunami Religion’ Karan Patel had lost his daughter in disaster for some time and during this time he came across Munira who was separated from her family members. Karan had seen his daughter in Munira and got attached to her and so he adopted her.
3.      Human relationships always help us to carry on because they always presuppose further developments. This world is a huge stage and we all people are the actors playing own roles. We people do not leave our natural life rather always in constrain of relationship and bound to act accordingly.  And this constrain is a bond, binds all persons together. Mrs. Anjali Prashar has brought out clearly this emotionally sensitive relations in her essay ‘Tsunami Religion’
       This story brings out the lovely attachment between daughter and father and it shows how that affection culminated in creating new bond. Karan, a fine Indian gentleman, held a position of an executive officer in American Company. His wife died from a brain- tumour. He decided not to remarry and brought up Meera on his own. Then he was separated from his only daughter for some days in disaster. During this time, he happened to meet Munira, who resembles like his daughter. His heart had melted for Munira. Even after he was reunited with his daughter, he adopted Munira and treated her as his own daughter.











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